Parents and children are facing major life disruptions with the outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19). Between school closures and social distancing, it’s a lot to take in and it’s difficult for everyone in the family. We sat down with expert adolescent psychologist, best-selling author, monthly New York Times columnist and mother of two Dr. Lisa Damour to learn more about how families can support each other and make the most of this new (temporary) normal.

UNICEF: How can teenagers and parents take care of their mental health during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak?

Dr. Damour: The first thing that parents can do is actually to normalise the fact that they [teenagers] are feeling anxious. Many teenagers have the misunderstanding that anxiety is always a sign of mental illness when in fact, psychologists have long recognised that anxiety is a normal and healthy function that alerts us to threats and helps us take measures to protect ourselves. So it’s very helpful for teenagers if you say, “You’re having the right reaction. Some anxiety right now makes sense, you’re supposed to feel that way. And that anxiety is going to help you make the decisions that you need to be making right now.” Practicing social distancing, washing your hands often and not touching your face — your anxiety will help you do what needs to be done right now, so that you can feel better. So that’s one thing we can do.

And then give them further things to do that may be of help: perhaps dropping off food to people in need or going shopping for them or figuring out what areas of our community need support and doing things to support the people around them while maintaining social distance. Finding ways to care for others will help young people feel better themselves.

Researchers have found that finding positive distractions can help us deal: we do our homework, we watch our favourite movies, we get in bed with a novel. That is a very appropriate strategy right now. There’s probably a lot to be said for talking about coronavirus and anxiety as a way to seek relief, and there is also a lot to be said about not talking about it as a way to seek relief. Helping kids find that right balance will make a big difference.
Feli, 5 (left), and Kimy, 6 (centre), study at home with their father. © UNICEF/UNI319343/Veska

UNICEF: On distractions, it’s going to be tempting for a lot of teenagers to bury themselves in screens right now. How can parents and teenagers best handle that?

Dr. Damour: I would be very upfront with a teenager and say, “Okay, you and I both know you’ve got a heck of a lot of time on your hands, but you and I both know that it’s not going to be a good idea to have unfettered access to screens and/or social media. We really don’t think you having a social media free-for-all is a good idea under any condition.” But I think you just say that in a very up-front way which acknowledges that, naturally, there’s no way that the time spent in school will be entirely replaced with being online.

And then ask the teenager, “How should we handle this? What should our plans be? What do you propose in this new normal or new short-term normal. Your time is no longer structured in the ways you’re accustomed to, come up with a structure and show me the structure that you have in mind, and then we can think it through together.”


UNICEF: Is structure key to maintaining a sense of normalcy? 

Dr. Damour: Kids need structure. Full stop. And what we’re all having to do, very quickly, is invent entirely new structures to get every one of us through our days. And so I would strongly recommend that parents make sure that there’s a schedule for the day, that there’s a plan for how time will be spent — and that can include playtime where kids can get on their phones and connect with their friends, which of course they’re going to want to do. But it also should have technology-free time, time set aside to help with making dinner, time to go outside if possible. We need to think about what we value and we need to build a structure that reflects that, and it will be a great relief to our kids to have a sense of a predictable day and a sense of when they’re supposed to be working and when they get to play.I would say for kids under the age of 10 or 11, the parent should come up with a structure and then negotiate from there with their child and see if there’s any feedback that makes good sense.

For children 10 and 11 or older, I would ask the child to design it — and give them a sense of the kinds of things that should be part of that structure, and then work with what they create.
Twins Ana and Kaja (7) are greeted with a warm hug from their grandmother. © UNICEF/UNI321649/Georgiev

UNICEF: What tips would you give parents who are building a structure for younger children?

Dr. Damour: I think we have to recognise that younger kids actually do sit in class for periods of the day and tolerate the interruptions of a lot of kids around them, and they won’t have to tolerate those when they’re at home. I don’t think we should underestimate their ability to work in a focused way from home.

That said, every family knows their child best and it may be ideal, depending on who is supervising them, to structure their day so that all of those things that need to get done get done before anything else happens: All of their schoolwork, all of their chores, all of their have-to-do activities versus get-to-do activities. For some families, doing that at the start of the day will work best for kids.

I also want to add something that some people may be reluctant to voice: We’re stuck with this, so to the degree you can enjoy it — you should. If this means you’re making pancakes as a family for breakfast and that is something that was never a possibility on a normal school day and that’s something that makes everybody happy, enjoy that.

 
“We should remember that they are the
passengers in this and we are driving the car.”
UNICEF: How important is a parent’s own behaviour in a time of crisis?

Dr. Damour:
 Parents, of course, are anxious too and our kids know us better than we know ourselves. They will take emotional cues from us. I would ask parents to do what they can to manage their anxiety on their own time – to not overshare their fears with their children. That may mean containing emotions, which may be hard for parents at times especially if they’re feeling those emotions pretty intensely. I would want for parents to find an outlet for their anxiety that’s not their children. We should remember that they are the passengers in this and we are driving the car. And so even if we’re feeling anxious, which of course we will be, we can’t let that get in the way of them feeling like safe passengers in our car.


UNICEF: Should parents ask their children how they’re feeling on a regular basis or does that bring up more feelings of anxiety?

Dr. Damour: I think it depends on the kid. Some kids really keep to themselves and so it may be valuable for a parent to say, “How are you doing?” or “What are you hearing?” Other kids are going to be talking and talking and talking about it. The way we want to approach these things is to find a good balance between expression and containment. You want some expression and feeling, especially at a time when we should expect kids to have some pretty intense feelings, but you also want those emotions to feel contained. So if your kid is high on expression, you’re going to work on containment, if your kid is high on containment you’re going to help them with a little bit of expression.
 
Arthur eats fruit with his son Daniel, 7. © UNICEF/UNI323339/Gevorgyan

UNICEF: Children may worry about catching the virus, but not feel comfortable speaking to their parents about it. How should parents approach the topic with them?

Dr. Damour: Parents should have a calm, proactive conversation with their children about the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the important role children can play in keeping themselves healthy. Let them know that it is possible that [you or your children] might start to feel symptoms at some point, which are often very similar to the common cold or flu, and that they do not need to feel unduly frightened of this possibility. Parents should encourage their kids to let them know if they're not feeling well, or if they are feeling worried about the virus so that the parents can be of help.

Adults can empathise with the fact that children are feeling understandably nervous and worried about COVID-19. Reassure your children that illness due to COVID-19 infection is generally mild, especially for children and young adults. From there, we can remind them that there are many effective things we can do to keep ourselves and others safe and to feel in better control of our circumstances: frequently wash our hands, don't touch our faces and engage in social distancing.

UNICEF: There’s a lot of inaccurate information about coronarvirus out there. What can parents do to help counter this misinformation?

Dr. Damour: Start by finding out what they are hearing or what they think is true. It’s not enough to just give your kid facts. If your child has picked up something that is inaccurate or picked up news that is not correct they will combine the new information you give them with the old information they have into a sort of Frankenstein understanding of what’s going on.  So ask them, “What are you hearing? When you see kids on social media or when you were last at the playground, what was being said?” Find out what they already know and start from there in terms of getting them on the right track. From there, adults should strongly encourage kids to trust and use reliable sources [such as UNICEF and the World Health Organization’s websites] to get information, or to check any information they might be getting through less reliable channels.

 
“When it comes to having a painful
feeling, the only way out is through.”

UNICEF: How can parents support their children who are experiencing disappointment due to cancelled events and activities?

Dr. Damour: Let them be sad and don’t try to guilt them out of it. Don’t say, “Other people have this worse than you.” Now your kid feels sad and guilty! That doesn’t make it better. Say to them, “You are having the right reaction. This really stinks. You’re not going to get to be with your friends. You’re not going to get to spend spring on college campus. You’re not going to get to go to this convention that you spent six months preparing for.” In the scope of an adolescent’s life these are major losses. And the other thing adults have to remember is we’ve never seen anything like this, and we’ve been around for a long time. They’ve never seen anything like this and they’re much younger. The disruption of four months in the life of a 14-year-old is a very great percentage of their time they remember being alive. This is bigger for them than it is for us.

So I would ask parents to expect and normalise that teenagers are very sad and very frustrated about the losses they are mourning and all kids are mourning losses right now. I happened to be around six teenagers yesterday who were leaving school who were deeply sad, and I said, “Go be sad. This is really yucky and this stinks, and you have every right to be sad.” When it comes to having a painful feeling, the only way out is through.  
Mum Christina reads to Indigo which is one of his favourite pastimes. © UNICEF/UNI322348/Simons

UNICEF: What recommendations do you have for teenagers who are feeling lonely and disconnected from friends and activities?

Dr. Damour:
 This is where we now may appreciate social media in a whole new way! While adults can have such a jaundiced view of adolescents and social media, teenagers want to be with their friends. Under social distancing conditions: tada! They can be with their friends! Further, I would never underestimate the creativity of teenagers. My hunch is that they will find ways to play with one another online that are different from how they’ve been doing it before. And so I would not hold a dim view of all social media right now. I would just make sure that it’s not a wall-to-wall experience for kids because that’s not good for anybody.
 
UNICEF: What are some of the outlets teenagers can use to work through these difficult feelings and take care of their mental health?

Dr. Damour: I think every kid is going to do this in a different way. Some kids are going to make art, some kids are going to want to talk to their friends and use their shared sadness as a way to feel connected in a time when they can’t be together in person. Some kids are going to want to find ways to get food to food banks. I would just say know your kid, take your cues from your teenager, and really think a lot about balancing talking about feelings with finding distractions and allow distractions when kids need a relief from feeling very upset.
 
UNICEF: Some children are facing abuse at school or online around the coronavirus outbreak. What should a child do if they are experiencing bullying?

Dr. Damour: Activating bystanders is the best way to address any kind of bullying. Along these lines, all parents should tell their children that if they witness bullying, they should reach out to the victim or find an adult who can help.
Lesli, 27 years old, supervises how her three children, Cristian, Sherlyn and Sharon, continue their learning at home due to the COVID-19 outbreak by following the primary classes on television. © UNICEF/UNI328509/Volpe


See the UNICEF Australia Resources Hub for more advice, tips and activities to support you and your family through the coronavirus pandemic, from UNICEF experts in health, early childhood development, education, and child protection.
 

Quick FAQs about COVID-19

What is a 'novel' coronavirus?
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A novel coronavirus (CoV) is a new strain of coronavirus. The disease caused by the novel coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, China, has been named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) – ‘CO’ stands for corona, ‘VI’ for virus, and ‘D’ for disease.

Formerly, this disease was referred to as ‘2019 novel coronavirus’ or ‘2019-nCoV.’ The COVID-19 virus is a new virus linked to the same family of viruses as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and some types of common cold.
How does the COVID-19 virus spread?
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The virus is transmitted through direct contact with respiratory droplets of an infected person (generated through coughing and sneezing), and touching surfaces contaminated with the virus. The COVID-19 virus may survive on surfaces for several hours, but simple disinfectants can kill it.
What are the symptoms of novel coronavirus?
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Symptoms can include fever, cough and shortness of breath. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia or breathing difficulties. More rarely, the disease can be fatal. 

These symptoms are similar to the flu (influenza) or the common cold, which are a lot more common than COVID-19. This is why testing is required to confirm if someone has COVID-19.

It’s important to remember that key prevention measures are the same – frequent hand washing, and respiratory hygiene (cover your cough or sneeze with a flexed elbow or tissue, then throw away the tissue into a closed bin). Also, there is a vaccine for the flu – so remember to keep yourself and your child up to date with vaccinations. 
 
​How can I avoid the risk of infection?
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Here are four precautions you and your family can take to avoid infection:

1. Wash your hands frequently using soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub 
2. Cover your mouth and nose with a flexed elbow or tissue, when coughing or sneezing, and throw away the tissue into a closed bin
3. Avoid close contact with anyone who has cold or flu-like symptoms
4. Go to the doctor if you have a fever, cough or feel that it is difficult to breathe

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